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2019年全国Ⅰ卷高考英语真题及解析(Word版,精校解析版)

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2019 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(全国 I 卷)

英语

注意事项:

1.答卷前,考生务必将自己的姓名、准考证号填写在答题卡上。

2.回答选择题时,选出每小题答案后,用铅笔把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂

黑。如需改动,用橡皮擦干净后,再选涂其他答案标号。回答非选择题时,将答

案写在答题卡上,写在本试卷上无效。

3.考试结束后,将本试卷和答题卡一并交回。

第一部分 听力(共两节,满分 30 分)

做题时,先将答案标在试卷上。录音内容结束后,你将有两分钟的时间将试卷上

的答案转涂到答题卡上。

第一节 (共 5 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 7.5 分)

听下面 5 段对话。每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选

出最佳选项。听完每段对话后,你都有 10 秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一

小题。每段对话仅读一遍。

例:How much is the shirt?

A. ?19.15. B. ?9.18. C. ?9.15.

答案是 C。

1.Where does this conversation take place?

A. In a classroom.

B. In a hospital.

C. In a museum.

【答案】B

2.What does Jack want to do?

A. Take fitness classes.

B. Buy a pair of gym shoes.

C. Change his work schedule.

【答案】A

3.What are the speakers talking about?

A. What to drink.

B. Where to meet.

C. When to leave.

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【答案】B

4.What is the relationship between the speakers?

A. Colleges.

B. Classmates.

C. Strangers.

【答案】C

5.Why is Emily mentioned in the conversation?

A. She might want a ticket.

B. She is looking for the man.

C. She has an extra ticket.

【答案】A

第二节(共 15 小题,每小题 1.5 分,满分 22.5 分)

听下面 5 段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的 A、B、C

三个选项中选出最佳选项。听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每

小题 5 秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出 5 秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。

听下面一段较长对话,回答以下小题。

6. How long did James run his business?

A. 10 years.

B. 13years.

C. 15 years.

7. How does the woman feel about James' situation?

A. Embarrassed.

B. Concerned.

C. Disappointed.

【答案】6. C 7. B

听下面一段较长对话,回答以下小题。

8. What has Kate's mother decided to do?

A. Return to school.

B. Change her job.

9. What did Kate's mother study at college?

A. Oil painting.

B. Art history.

administration.

10. What is Kate's attitude toward her mother's decision?

A. Disapproving. 【答案】8. A 9. C

10. C

B. Ambiguous.

C. Retire from work. C. Business C. Understanding.

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听下面一段较长对话,回答以下小题。

11. What is the man doing?

A. Chairing a meeting.

B. Hosting a radio program.

C. Conducting a job interview.

12. What benefits Mary most in her job?

A. Her wide reading.

B. Her leaders' guidance.

13. Who will Mary talk about next?

A. Her teacher. 【答案】11. B

12. A

B. Her father 13. C

C. Her friends' help C. Her mother.

听下面一段较长对话,回答以下小题。

14. Why does the man seldom do exercise?

A. He lacks motivation.

B. He has a heart problem.

C. He works all the time. 15. What does Jacob Sattelmair probably do?

A. He's an athlete.

B. He's a researcher.

16. Why does the woman speak of a study?

A. To encourage the man.

B. To recommend an exercise.

C. To support her findings. 17. How much time will the man probably spend exercising weekly?

A. 300 minutes. 【答案】14. A

15. B

B. 150 minute. 16. A 17. C

C. He's a journalist. C. 75 minutes.

听下面一段独白,回答以下小题。

18. What did the scientists do to the road?

A. They repaired it.

B. They painted it.

19. Why are young birds drawn to the road surface?

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C. They blocked it

A. It's warm.

B. It's brown.

20. What is the purpose of the scientists' experiment?

A. To keep the birds there for a whole year.

B. To help students study the birds well.

C. To prevent the birds from being killed.

【答案】18. B 19. A 20. C

C. It's smooth.

第二部分 阅读理解(共两节,满分 40 分) 第一节 (共 15 小题;每小题 2 分,满分 30 分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 四个选项中,选出最佳选项。
A
Need a Job This Summer? The provincial government and its partners offer many programs to help students find summer jobs. The deadlines and what you need to apply depend on the program. Not a student? Go to the government website to learn about programs and online tools available to help people under 30 build skills, find a job or start businesses all year round. Jobs for Youth If you are a teenager living in certain parts of the province, you could be eligible(符合条件)for this program. Which provides eight weeks of paid employment along with training. Who is eligible: Youth 15-18 years old in select communities(社区). Summer Company Summer Company provides students with hands-on business training and awards of up to $3,000 to start and run their own summer businesses. Who is eligible: Students aged 15-29, returning to school in the fall. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program You could apply to be a Stewardship Youth Ranger and work on local natural resource management projects for eight weeks this summer. Who is eligible: Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year. Summer Employment Opportunities(机会)
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Through the Summer Employment Opportunities program, students are hired each year in a

variety of summer positions across the Provincial Public Service, its related agencies and community

groups.

Who is eligible: Students aged 15 or older. Some positions require students to be 15 to 24 or up to

29 for persons with a disability.

21. What is special about Summer Company?

A. It requires no training before employment.

B. It provides awards for running new businesses.

C. It allows one to work in the natural environment.

D. It offers more summer job opportunities.

22. What is the age range required by Stewardship Youth Ranger Program?

A. 15-18.

B. 15-24.

C. 15-29.

D. 16-17.

23. Which program favors the disabled?

A. Jobs for Youth.

B. Summer Company.

C. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program. 【答案】21. B 22. D 23. D

D. Summer Employment Opportunities.

【解析】

本文为应用文。本文叙述了省政府及其合作伙伴提供了许多项目来帮助学生暑期在找到工作。

【21 题详解】

细 节 理 解 题 。 根 据 Summer Company 部 分 中 的 “Summer Company provides students with ...awards of up to $3,000 to start and run their own summer businesses” 可知“Summer

Company 为学生提供高达 3000 美元的奖励,来开始和经营他们自己的暑期业务”。“start and

run their own summer businesses”即“为开办新的业务”,这对应 B 项中的“runn new

businesses”,二者是词义之间的转述关系。故选 B。

【22 题详解】

细节理解题。根据 Stewardship Youth Ranger Program 部分中的第二段“Who is eligible: Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year.”可知“符合条件的

学生:16 岁或 17 岁的学生,但在今年 12 月 31 日之前未满 18 岁”。由此得出,这个项目要

求年龄在 16-17 岁之间。分析选项可知 D 项符合题意,故选 D。 【23 题详解】

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细节理解题。根据 Summer Employment Opportunities 部分中的最后一段最后一句“Who is eligible: ...Some positions require students to be 15to 24 or up to 29 for persons with a disability”, 可知 Summer Employment Opportunities 有些职位是给残疾人的。分析选项可知,D 项符合题意, 故选 D。

B

For Canaan Elementary’s second grade in Patchogue, N.Y.,today is speech day ,and right now

it’s Chris Palaez’s turn. The 8-year-old is the joker of the class. With shining dark eyes, he seems like

the of kid who would enjoy public speaking. But he’s, nervous.“I’m here to tell you today why you should … should…”Chris trips on

the“-ld,”a. pronunciation difficulty for many non-native English speakers. His teacher ,Thomas

Whaley ,is next to him, whispering support.“…Vote for …me …”Except for some stumbles, Chris

is doing amazingly well. When he brings his speech to a nice conclusion ,Whaley invites the rest of the

class to praise him.

A son of immigrants, Chris stared learning English a little over three years ago. Whaley recalls(回

想起)how at the beginning of the year,when called upon to read,Chris would excuse himself to go

to the bathroom.

Learning English as a second language can be a painful experience. What you need is a great teacher who lets you make mistakes. “It takes a lot for any student,” Whaley explains,“especially for

a student who is learning English as their new language,to feel confident enough to say,‘I don’t know,but I want to know.’”

Whaley got the idea of this second-grade presidential campaign project when he asked the

children one day to raise their hands if they thought they could never be a president. The answer broke

his heart. Whaley says the project is about more than just learning to read and speak in public. He wants these kids to learn to boast(夸耀)about themselves.

“Boasting about yourself,and your best qualities,” Whaley says,“is very difficult for a child who

came into the classroom not feeling confident.”

24. What made Chris nervous?

A. Telling a story.

B. Making a speech.

C. Taking a test.

D. Answering a question.

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25. What does the underlined word “stumbles” in paragraph 2 refer to?

A. Improper pauses. B. Bad manners.

C. Spelling mistakes.

D. Silly jokes.

26. We can infer that the purpose of Whaley’s project is to _________.

A. help students see their own strengths

B. assess students’ public speaking skills

C. prepare students for their future jobs

D. inspire students’ love for politics

27. Which of the following best describes Whaley as a teacher?

A. Humorous. 【答案】24. B

B. Ambitious. 25. A 26. A 27. C

C. Caring.

D. Demanding.

【解析】

本文属于记叙文,讲述 Thomas Whaley 为了帮助学生学英语以及树立信心专门开展了一个演

讲课程。

【24 题详解】

细节理解题。根据第一段 today is speech day 和本段最后一句 with shining dark eyes, he seems like

the kind of kids who would enjoy public speaking. 以及第二段第一句 But he’s nervous.可知,

Chris 眼睛黑亮,似乎是那种喜欢公共演讲的孩子,但是他却很紧张,故可知 Chris 是因为做演

讲紧张,故选 B。

【25 题详解】

词义猜测题。根据第二段 “I’m here to tell you today why you should…should…” Chris trips on the “-ld”, a pronunciation difficulty for many non-native English speakers. 以及后文 except for

some stumbles, Chris is doing amazingly well 可知, Chris 发 ld 比较困难,这对于英语不是母语

的学*者来说都是一个困难,总体来说 Chris 做得出奇的好。根据前文可知,ld 发音不准,因

此有些结巴,停顿得不准,故选 A。

【26 题详解】

推理判断题。根据倒数第二段 Whaley says the project is about more than just learning to read and speak in public. He wants these kids to learn to boast about themselves.以及最后一段 “boasting

about yourself, and your best qualities,” Whaley says, “is very difficult for a child who came into

the classroom not feeling confident.”可知,这个课程不仅仅教孩子阅读以及公共演讲,还要让 孩子学会夸耀自己,而夸耀自己对于那些进入教室没有信心的学生来说很困难,故可知,

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Whaley 老师这么做是为了帮助学生认识自己的优势增加信心,故选 A。 【27 题详解】 推理判断题。根据倒数第二段 Whaley got the idea of this second-grade presidential campaign project when he asked the children one day to raise their hands if they thought they could never be a president.和最后一段 He wants these kids to learn to boast about themselves 可知,当他有一天问 学生认为自己当不了总统请举手的时候,想到了一个想法,这个课程就是帮助学生树立自己 的信心,故可以看出这位老师很关心学生的成长。humorous 幽默的, ambitious 有雄心壮志 的;caring 关心的;demanding 要求高的。故选 C。

C

As data and identity theft becomes more and more common, the market is growing for biometric(生物测量)technologies—like fingerprint scans—to keep others out of private e-spaces. At

present, these technologies are still expensive, though. Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device(装置)that gets
around this problem: a smart keyboard. This smart keyboard precisely measures the cadence(节 奏)with which one types and the pressure fingers apply to each key. The keyboard could offer a strong

layer of security by analyzing things like the force of a user's typing and the time between key presses.

These patterns are unique to each person. Thus, the keyboard can determine people's identities, and by extension, whether they should be given access to the computer it's connected to—regardless of

whether someone gets the password right.

It also doesn't require a new type of technology that people aren't already familiar with.

Everybody uses a keyboard and everybody types differently.

In a study describing the technology, the researchers had 100 volunteers type the word “touch”four times using the smart keyboard. Data collected from the device could be used to

recognize different participants based on how they typed, with very low error rates. The researchers

say that the keyboard should be pretty straightforward to commercialize and is mostly made of

inexpensive, plastic-like parts. The team hopes to make it to market in the near future.

28. Why do the researchers develop the smart keyboard?

A. To reduce pressure on keys.

B. To improve accuracy in typing

C. To replace the password system.

D. To cut the cost of e-space protection.

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29. What makes the invention of the smart keyboard possible?

A. Computers are much easier to operate.

B. Fingerprint scanning techniques develop fast.

C. Typing patterns vary from person to person.

D. Data security measures are guaranteed.

30. What do the researchers expect of the smart keyboard?all 1o soisgitieoco oll.

A. It'll be environment-friendly.

B. It'll reach consumers soon.

C. It'll be made of plastics.

D. It'll help speed up typing.

31. Where is this text most likely from?

A. A diary. 【答案】28. D

B. A guidebook 29. C 30. B 31. D

C. A novel.

D. A magazine.

【解析】

这是一篇说明文。数据和身份盗窃变得越来越普遍,目前,向指纹扫描等这些技术仍然是昂

贵的。本文介绍了一种新的科技——智能键盘,它能给 e-space 用户带来安全,而且这项技

术也不贵。

【28 题详解】

细节理解题。根据第一段的 At present, these technologies are still expensive, though.和第二段的

Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device that gets around this problem: a smart key board.可知,研究者们开发智能键盘是为了降低 e-space 保护的成本。

故选 D。 【29 题详解】

细节理解题。根据第二段的 The key board could offer a strong layer of security by analyzing things

like the force of a user’s typing and the time between key presses. These patterns are unique to each

person. Thus,the keyboard can determine people’s identities 可知,因为每个人的打字方式不同,

使智能键盘能够识别人的身份。故选 C。

【30 题详解】 细节理解题。根据最后一段的 The team hopes to make it to market in the near future.可知,研究

者们希望智能键盘能早日面世。故选 B。

【31 题详解】 推理判断题。本文介绍了一种新的科技——智能键盘,它能给 e-space 用户带来安全,由此可

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知,本文是关于科技,结合所给选项可知,本文可能来自于一本杂志。故选 D。

D

During the rosy years of elementary school(小学), I enjoyed sharing my dolls and jokes, which

allowed me to keep my high social status. I was the queen of the playground. Then came my tweens

and teens, and mean girls and cool kids. They rose in the ranks not by being friendly but by smoking

cigarettes, breaking rules and playing jokes on others, among whom I soon found myself.

Popularity is a well-explored subject in social psychology. Mitch Prinstein, a professor of clinical

psychology sorts the popular into two categories: the likable and the status seekers. The likables’

plays-well-with-others qualities strengthen schoolyard friendships, jump-start interpersonal skills and,

when tapped early, are employed ever after in life and work. Then there’s the kind of popularity that

appears in adolescence: status born of power and even dishonorable behavior.

Enviable as the cool kids may have seemed, Dr. Prinstein’s studies show unpleasant

consequences. Those who were highest in status in high school, as well as those least liked in

elementary school, are “most likely to engage(从事)in dangerous and risky behavior.”

In one study, Dr. Prinstein examined the two types of popularity in 235 adolescents, scoring the

least liked, the most liked and the highest in status based on student surveys(调查研究). “We found

that the least well-liked teens had become more aggressive over time toward their classmates. But so

had those who were high in status. It clearly showed that while likability can lead to healthy

adjustment, high status has just the opposite effect on us."

Dr. Prinstein has also found that the qualities that made the neighbors want you on a play

date-sharing, kindness, openness — carry over to later years and make you better able to relate and

connect with others.

In analyzing his and other research,Dr. Prinstein came to another conclusion: Not only is

likability related to positive life outcomes, but it is also responsible for those outcomes, too. "Being

liked creates opportunities for learning and for new kinds of life experiences that help somebody gain

an advantage, ” he said.

32. What sort of girl was the author in her early years of elementary school?

A. Unkind.

B. Lonely.

C. Generous.

D. Cool.

33. What is the second paragraph mainly about?

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.A. The classification of the popular.
B. The characteristics of adolescents. C. The importance of interpersonal skills. D. The causes of dishonorable behavior
34. What did Dr. Prinstein’s study find about the most liked kids? A. They appeared to be aggressive. B. They tended to be more adaptable. C. They enjoyed the highest status. D. They performed well academically. 35. What is the best title for the text? A. Be Nice-You Won’t Finish Last B. The Higher the Status, the Beer C. Be the Best-You Can Make It D. More Self-Control, Less Aggressiveness 【答案】32. C 33. A 34. B 35. A 【解析】 这是一篇说明文。文章主要讲到研究表明,对别人好,讨人喜欢对人生活的各个方面有深远 的有益影响。 【32 题详解】 推理判断题。根据第一段 During the rosy years of elementary school, I enjoyed sharing my dolls and jokes, which allowed me to keep my high social status(在美好的小学时光里,我喜欢分享我的娃 娃和笑话,这让我保持了高高的社会地位。)由此推断出,作者在小学早期时,是一个慷慨的 女孩。unkind 不友善的;lonely 寂寞的;generous 慷慨的;cool 冷静的,故选 C。 【33 题详解】 主旨大意题。第二段 Mitch Prinstein, a professor of clinical psychology sorts the popular into two categories: the likable and the status seekers.(临床心理学教授 Mitch Prinstein 将受欢迎的人分为 两类:讨人喜欢的人和追求地位的人。)是段落主题句,本段内容分别对 the likable 和 the status seekers 做了解释,所以本段主要介绍了两种受欢迎的分类,故选 A。 【34 题详解】
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推理判断题。根据第四段 It clearly showed that while likability can lead to healthy adjustment (它 清楚地表明,可爱可以促使健全的调整),由此推断出,心理学教授 Mitch Prinstein 的研究表 明,最有人望的孩子适应性更强,故选 B。 【35 题详解】 主旨大意题。通过阅读全文内容,尤其是最后一段,可知这篇文章主要讲了受欢迎,讨人喜 欢对人生活的各个方面有深远的有益影响。与选项 A“对别人好——最终,你的收获无穷无 尽”一致,故选 A。
第二节 (共 5 小题;每小题 2 分,满分 10 分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项 为多余选项。
Is Fresh Air Really Good for You? We all grew up hearing people tell us to “go out and get some fresh air.” ____36____ According to recent studies,the answer is a big YES,if the air quality in your camping area is good. ___37___ If the air you’re breathing is clean-which it would be if you’re away from the smog of cities-then the air is filled with life-giving,energizing oxygen. If you exercise out of doors,your body will learn to breathe more deeply,allowing even more oxygen to get to your muscles(肌肉)and your brain. Recently,people have begun studying the connection between the natural world and healing(治 愈). _____38_____ In these places patients can go to be near nature during their recovery. It turns out that just looking at green,growing things can reduce stress,lower blood pressure,and put people into a better mood(情绪).Greenery is good for us. Hospital patients Who see tree branches out their window are likely to recover at a faster rate than patients who see buildings or sky instead. ______39______ It gives us a great feeling of peace. ___40___While the sun's rays can age and harm our skin, they also give is beneficial Vitamin D. To make sure you get enough Vitamin D—but still protect your skin— put on sunscreen right as you head outside. It takes sunscreen about fifteen minutes to start working, and that's plenty of time for your skin to absorb a day's worth of Vitamin D. A. Fresh air cleans our lungs. B. So what are you waiting for?
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C. Being in nature refreshes us. D. Another side benefit of getting fresh air is sunlight. E. But is fresh air really as good for you as your mother always said? F. Just as importantly, we tend to associate air with health care. G. All across the country, recovery centers have begun building Healing Gardens. 【答案】36. E 37. A 38. G 39. C 40. D 【解析】 这是一篇说明文。文章介绍了新鲜空气的好处:新鲜空气中的氧气,阳光对人们的身心健康 均有好处。人们已经开始利用大自然和治愈疾病的关系,建造“康复花园”,治疗病人了。 【36 题详解】 根据下一句中的“the answer is a big YES”可知,该空应该是一个一般疑问句,选项中只有 E 选 项是一般疑问句。故选 E:但是新鲜空气真得像你母亲说的那样对你有好处吗?空前的 people tell us to “go out and get some fresh air”和选项中的“your mother always said”亦是呼应。 【37 题详解】 根据下一句中提到的“If the air you’re breathing is clean…the air is filled with life-giving, energizing oxygen”可知,新鲜空气充满赋予人生命的,充满活力的氧气。下文中“…breathe more deeply, allowing more oxygen to get to your muscles and your brain”是对前文的递进:在户外,更多的 氧气进入你的肌肉和大脑。根据前面的分析可以推知,该空应该提到新鲜空气的基本作用, 根据常识,我们知道吸入的空气首先进入的是肺部,然后才会使我们的肌肉和大脑受益,故 该空应选 A 选项:新鲜空气清洁我们的肺部。 【38 题详解】 根据下一句中提到的“these places”可以推知,该空应该提到表示地点的复数名词。选项中只有 G 选项提到该类名词,故选项 G:在全国,康复中心已经开始建造“康复花园”。these places 就 是指 Healing Gardens。 【39 题详解】 前文介绍的是“康复花园”中的绿色植物对于病人康复的好的作用:绿色的正在成长的植物 可以减轻压力,降低血压,使人情绪良好。空后提到“它给我们一种*和感”。该空起承上启下 的作用,仍然要提到处于“康复花园”这种自然环境中的好处,空后的 it 也要指代这种情况。故 C 选项切题:身处大自然可以使人精神焕发。 【40 题详解】
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根据下文中提到的“the sun’s rays…give us beneficial Vitamin D”可知,该段介绍的阳光的好处。 故该选项应该提到阳光。选项中只有 D 选项涉及阳光。故选 D:获得新鲜空气的另一个好处 是阳光。

第三部分 语言知识运用(共两节,满分 45 分) 第一节 (共 20 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 30 分)

阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 四个选项中,选出可以填入空

白处的最佳选项。

Every year about 40,000 people attempt to climb Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa.

They ___41___ with them lots of waste. The ___42___ might damage the beauty of the place. The glaciers(冰川)are disappearing, changing the ___43___ of Kilimanjaro.

Hearing these stories, I’m ___44___ about the place — other destinations are described as

“purer” natural experiences.

However, I soon ___45___ that much has changed since the days of disturbing reports of

___46___ among tons of rubbish. I find a ___47___ mountain, with toilets at camps and along the

paths. The environmental challenges are ___48___ but the efforts made by the Tanzania National Park

Authority seem to be ___49___.

The best of a Kilimanjaro ___50___, in my opinion, isn’t reaching the top. Mountains are

___51___ as spiritual places by many cultures. This ___52___ is especially evident on Kilimanjaro as ___53___ go through five ecosystems(生态系统)in the space of a few kilometers. At the base is a

rainforest. It ends abruptly at 3, 000 meters, ___54___ lands of low growing plants. Further up, the

weather ___55___ — low clouds envelope the mountainsides, which are covered with thick grass. I

___56___ twelve shades of green from where I stand. Above 4, 000 meters is the highland ___57___:

gravel(砾石), stones and rocks. ___58___ you climb into an arctic-like zone with ___59___ snow and

the glaciers that may soon disappear.

Does Kilimanjaro ___60___ its reputation as a crowded mountain with lines of tourists ruining the atmosphere of peace?I found the opposite to be true.

41. A. keep

B. mix

C. connect

D. bring

42. A. stories

B. buildings

C. crowds

D. reporters

43. A. position

B. age

C. face

D. name

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44. A. silent

B. skeptical

C. serious

D. crazy

45. A. discover

B. argue

C. decide

D. advocate

46. A. equipment

B. grass

C. camps

D. stones

47. A. remote

B. quiet

C. all

D. clean

48. A. new

B. special

C. significant

D. necessary

49. A. paying off

B. spreading out

C. blowing up

D. fading away

50. A. atmosphere

B. experience

C. experiment

D. sight

51. A. studied

B. observed

C. explored

D. regarded

52. A. view

B. quality

C. reason

D. purpose

53. A. scientists

B. climbers

C. locals

D. officials

54. A. holding on to

B. going back to

C. living up to

D. giving way to

55. A. changes

B. clears

C. improves

D. permits

56. A. match

B. imagine

C. count

D. add

57. A. village

B. desert

C. road

D. lake

58. A. Obviously

B. Easily

C. Consequently

D. Finally

59. A. permanent

B. little

C. fresh

D. artificial

60. A. enjoy

B. deserve

C. save

D. acquire

【答案】41. D 42. C 43. C 44. B 45. A 46. C 47. D 48. C 49. A

50. B 51. D 52. A 53. B 54. D 55. A 56. C 57. B 58. D 59. A

60. B 【解析】

这是一篇夹叙夹议文。每年有 4 万登山者攀登非洲第一高峰乞力马扎罗山,他们带来了垃圾,

破坏了这里的环境。再加上冰川的消失,改变着它的地貌。对此作者对这个地方很是怀疑,

想一探究竟。当他来到这里,他发现当地环保措施很到位,同时作者发现乞力马扎罗山有多

种生态系统。作者认为乞力马扎罗山不应该被誉为一座挤满了破坏宁静氛围的游客的拥挤的

山峰。

【41 题详解】

考查动词辨析。A. keep 保持;B. mix 混合;C. connect 联系;D. bring 带来。句意:他们带来

了很多的垃圾。由“lots of waste”可知,登山者带来了很多的垃圾。故 D 选项切题。 【42 题详解】

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考查名词辨析。A. stories 故事;B. buildings 建筑物;C. crowds 人群;D. reporters 记者。句意: 人群可能会破坏这个地方的美。由“40,000”可知,这是一个庞大的群体。故 C 选项切题。 【43 题详解】 考查名词辨析。A.position 位置;B.age 年龄;C. face 外貌;D. name 名字。句意:冰川正在消 失,改变着乞力马扎罗山的地貌。冰川是乞力马扎罗山地貌之一,所以冰山融化会改变它的 地貌。故 C 选项切题。 【44 题详解】 考查形容词辨析。A. silent 沉默的;B. skepetical 怀疑的;C. serious 严肃的;D. crazy 疯狂的。 句意:听到这些故事,我对这个地方产生了怀疑——其他旅游地被描述为“更纯粹”的自然体验。 由 下 文 可 知 , 作 者 亲 自 来 到 了 乞 力 马 扎 罗 山 , 作 者 想 解 开 这 个 怀 疑 。 故 be skepetical about“对……怀疑”符合句意。故 B 选项切题。 【45 题详解】 考查动词辨析。A. discover 发现;B. argue 争论;C. decide 决定;D. advocate 提倡。句意:然 而,我很快发现,自从那些令人不安的关于营地周围有成吨的垃圾的报道出现以来,情况发 生了很大的变化。由“much has changed ”可知,作者发现了很大的变化。故 A 选项切题。 【46 题详解】 考查名词辨析。A.equipment 装备 ;B. grass 草 C. camps 营地;D. stone 石头。句意:我很快 发现,自从那些令人不安的关于营地周围有成吨的垃圾的报道出现以来,情况发生了很大的 变化。由下文“at camps ”可知,本句属于原词再现。故 C 选项切题。 【47 题详解】 考查形容词辨析。A. remote 遥远的;B. quiet 安静的 C. tall 高的; D. clean 干净的。句意:我发 现了一座干净的山,营地里和路边都有厕所。由“with tolilet at camps and along the paths”可知, 营地里和路边都有厕所。所以这是一座干净的山。故 D 选项切题。 【48 题详解】 考查形容词辨析。A. new 新的;B. special 特殊的;C. significant 相当大的;D. necessary 必要 的。句意:环境挑战是巨大的,但坦桑尼亚国家公园管理局所做的努力似乎正在得到回报。 根据前文可知,很多的登山者来到乞力马扎罗山以及冰川可能会消失。这对于环境来说是一 个巨大的挑战。故 C 选项切题。 【49 题详解】 考查动词短语辨析。A. paying off 还清,报偿;B.spreading out 伸展;C. blowing up 爆炸;D. fading
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away;逐渐消退。句意:环境挑战是巨大的,但坦桑尼亚国家公园管理局所做的努力似乎正 在得到回报。由“but”可知,前后表示转折关系,说明坦桑尼亚国家公园管理局所做的努力似 乎正在得到回报。故 A 选项切题。 【50 题详解】 考查名词辨析。A. atmosphere 氛围;B. experience 经历;C. experiment 实验;D.sight 视力。句 意:在我看来,来乞力马扎罗最好的经历并不是到达顶峰。登山就是人生的一种经历。故 B 选项切题。 【51 题详解】 考查动词辨析。A. studied 学*;B. observed 观察;C. explored 探索;D. regarded 认为。句意: 山被许多文化视为精神场所。由“spiritual space ”,可知,山被许多文化视为精神场所。be regarded as“被视为......”符合句意。故 D 选项切题。 【52 题详解】 考查名词辨析。A. view 景色 ;B.quality 质量 ;C. reason 原因;D. purpose 目的 句意:在乞 力马扎罗,当登山者在几公里的空间里穿越五个生态系统时,景色差异尤为明显。有五个生 态系统,所以景色也是明显的不同。故 A 选项切题。 【53 题详解】 考查名词辨析。A. scientists 科学家;B. climbers 登山者;C. locals 当地人; D. officials 官员。 句意:在乞力马扎罗,当登山者在几公里的空间里穿越五个生态系统时,景色尤为明显。故 A 选项切题。来到乞力马扎罗都是为了登山,也只有登山者能体验到五个生态系统。故 B 选项 切题。 【54 题详解】 考查动词短语辨析。A.holding on to 抓住;B. going back to 回到(原来的话题);C. living up to 履行;D. giving way to 向......让步。句意:热带雨林在海拔 3000 米处突然到了尽头,让位于大 片的低矮植物。这里指热带雨林在海拔 3000 米处突然到了尽头,所以海拔 3000 米以上就是大 片的低矮植物。 giving way to“向......让步”符合句意。故 D 选项切题。 【55 题详解】 考查动词辨析。A. changes 改变;B. clears 放晴;C. improves 提高; D.permits 允许。句意: 再往上走,天气变了--低云笼罩着被厚厚的草覆盖的山腰。由“low clouds ”可知,生态系统不 同,天气也是不同的,是变化的。故 A 选项切题。 【56 题详解】
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考查动词辨析。A. match 匹配;B. imagine 想象;C. count 数;D.add 增加。句意:我从站的地 方数出了十二种绿色。由“twelve shades of green”可知,作者数出了十二种绿色。故 C 选项切 题。 【57 题详解】 考查名词辨析。A. village 村庄; B. desert 沙漠,荒地;C. road 马路;D.lake 湖 。句意:海拔 4000 米以上是高山寒漠:砾石、石头和岩石。由“grave,stones and rocks”可知,拔 4000 米以上是 高山寒漠。故 B 选项切题。 【58 题详解】 考查副词辨析。A.Obviously 明显地;B.Easily 容易地;C.Consequently 结果;D.Finally 最后地。 句意:海拔 4000 米以上是高地沙漠:砾石、石头和岩石。生态系统最顶端也是最后一个生态系 统是冰川地区。故 D 选项切题。 【59 题详解】 考查形容词辨析。A. permanent.永久的;B.little 小的;C.fresh 新鲜的;D.artifical 人造的。句 意:很明显,你爬进了一个类似北极的地带,那里有着永久性的积雪和可能很快消失的冰川。 由“arctic -like zone”可知,这是一个类似北极的地带,所以有永久性的积雪。故 A 选项切题。 【60 题详解】 考查动词辨析。A. enjoy 享受;B.deserve 值得;C. save 挽救;D. acquire 获得。句意:乞力马扎 罗山是一座拥挤的山,挤满了成群的游客,破坏了宁静的气氛,它值得这样的名声吗?。这 里作者在疑问乞力马扎罗山是不是应该被誉为一座挤满了破坏宁静氛围的游客的拥挤的山 峰。以此在对后面的回答做好铺垫。故 B 选项切题。
第二节 (共 10 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 15 分)
阅读下面短文,在空白处填入 1 个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 The polar bear is found in the Arctic Circle and some big land masses as far south as
Newfoundland. While they are rare north of 88°,there is evidence ___61___ they range all the way across the Arctic, and as far south as James Bay in Canada. It is difficult to figure out a global population of polar bears as much of the range has been ___62___ (poor) studied; however, biologists calculate that there are about 20,000-25,000 polar bears worldwide.
Modem methods ___63___ tracking polar bear populations have been employed only since the mid-1980s, and are expensive ___64___ (perform) consistently over a large area. In recent years some
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Inuit people in Nunayut ___65___ (report) increases in bear sightings around human settlements,

leading to a ___66___ (believe) that populations are increasing. Scientists have responded by

___67___ (note) that hungry bears may be congregating(聚集) around human settlements, leading to

the illusion(错觉) that populations are ___68___ (high) than they actually are. Of ___69___ nineteen

recognized polar bear subpopulations, three are declining, six ___70___ (be) stable, one is increasing,

and nine lack enough data. 【答案】61. that 62. poorly

63. of/for

64. to perform

65. have report

66. belief

67. noting 68. higher 69. the 70. are

【解析】

本文为科普文类说明文,介绍了北极熊的生存现状。

【61 题详解】

考查同位语从句。根据句子结构分析可知,主句为 there be 句型,且结构完整,空格后为同位

语从句,解释说明中心词 evidence 内容,故填 that。

【62 题详解】
的 考查副词用法。根据句意和结构分析可知,此处用副词 poorly 修饰谓语动词 has been studied,
意为“研究很少”。故填 poorly。 【63 题详解】 考查介词用法。此处 tracking polar bear populations 作 Modern methods 的定语,用 of 连接, “methods of doing sth.”,意为“…的方法”,构成固定结构。或者意为“对于跟踪北极熊的方 法”用 for。故填 of/for。 【64 题详解】 考查非谓语动词。主系表结构之后,常用不定式作原因或目的状语,句意:跟踪北极熊的现 代方法只是在二十世纪八十年代以来开始采用,并且在如此大区域内持续采用是昂贵的,故

此处用 to perform。

【65 题详解】

考查时态。根据上下文语境,尤其是时间状语 in recent years 可知,主句用现在完成时态,故 填 have reported。

【66 题详解】

考查名词。根据其前不定冠词和其后的同位语从句可知,空格处为名词形式,故填 belief。 【67 题详解】

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考查非谓语动词。根据其前介词 by 可知,此处用动名词主动形式,故填 noting。 【68 题详解】 考查形容词比较级。根据其后 than they actually are 可知,此处为形容词的比较级,故填 higher。 【69 题详解】 考查定冠词。此处为特指,意为“在已知的 19 个北极熊亚种群中”,故填 the。 【70 题详解】 考查主谓一致。根据 three are declining,此处数词 six 作主语,代指前文中的“polar bear subpopulations”,故用复数谓语,一般现在时,故填 are。
.第四部分 写作(共两节,满分35分)
第一节 短文改错(共 10 小题;每小题 1 分,满分 10 分)
71.假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有 10 处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1 每处错误及其修改均仅限一词;
2.只允许修改 10 处,多者(从第 11 处起)不计分。 I became interesting in playing football thanks to a small accident. One afternoon where I was in primary school, I was walking by the school playground. Suddenly football feel just in front of me but almost hit me. I stopped the ball and kicked it hardly back to the playground. To everyone`s surprising, the ball went into the net. All the football player on the playground cheered loudly, say that I had a talent for football. From now on, I started to play my football with classmates after school. I am a good player now. 【答案】interesting→interested where→when football 前面加上 a but→and hardly→hard
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surprising→surprise player→players say→saying now→then 去掉 my 【解析】 【分析】 这是一篇记叙文。作者讲述了由于一次偶然的经历,自己喜欢上了踢足球。从此成了一名优 秀球员。 【详解】1. 考查形容词用法。“interest(使感兴趣;使关注)”的形容词有 interesting(使人 感兴趣的)常修饰物;与 interested(表现出兴趣的)常修饰人。本句的意思为:多亏一个偶 然的事件,我对踢足球产生了兴趣。主语是 I,故将 interesting 改为 interested。 2. 考查定语从句。先行词 one afternoon 表示时间在定语从句中作状语,所以关系词使用 when。 故将 where 改为 when。 3. 考查冠词。名词 football 为可数名词,前边需要有限定词。这里 football 第一次出现,故在 football 前加 a。 4. 考查连词。句意:突然一个足球落在我前边并且差点打到我。“足球落下来”与“打到我” 两个动作是顺承关系,不是转折关系。故将 but 改为 and。 5. 考查副词。“hard(努力地;费力地)”与“hardly(几乎不;几乎没有)”都为副词,但 是词义不同。本句意思为:我挡住足球,并使劲地将它踢回操场。故将 hardly 改为 hard。 6. 考查固定搭配。“to one’s + 名词”在句中表示结果,“to one’s surprise”意思为“使某人 惊讶的是…”。故将 surprising 改为 surprise。 7. 考查名词的数。“player(运动员)”为可数名词,所以 all(所有的)后需要用 player 的复 数形式。故将 player 改为 players。 8. 考查现在分词。本句句意:操场上所有的足球运动员大声欢呼,说我有足球天赋。句中谓 语动词为 cheered,say 在这里作伴随状语。与主语 players 是主动关系,故将 say 改为 saying。 9. 考查固定搭配。句意:从那时开始,我放学后跟同学一起踢足球。且“from now on(从现 在开始)”后边句子应该表示从现在开始所发生 动作或存在的情况,不能用一般过去时。 此处后面是一般过去时,表示“从那时起”是 from then on,故将 now 改为 then。 10. 考查固定搭配。“踢足球”的英语表达为“play football”,中间不能加冠词或者代词。故
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将 my 去掉。
第二节 书面表达(满分 25 分)
72.假定你是李华,暑假在伦敦学*,得知当地美术馆要剧版中国画展。请写一封信申请做志 愿者,内容包括: 1.写信目的: 2.个人优势: 3.能做的事情。 注意: 1.词数 100 左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯; 3.结束语已为你写好。 ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 【答案】I'm LiHua, an outgoing boy, who is studying in London. I am writing to apply to be a volunteer of your team, having heard that a Chinese Painting Exhibition will be held in this local city. I have some advantages for the job.
First of all, having lived in China for sixteen years and having learnt English since I was a child , I have a good command of English and Chinese, which is beneficial for introducing Chinese paintings. Besides, having a good knowledge of Chinese paintings because of my familiarity with Chinese painting culture, I can get foreigners and the locals to know more about it. Last but not least,through my introduction and efforts, I believe, I can strengthen the friendship between China and England. I would appreciate it if you could take my application into consideration. 【解析】 【分析】 本篇书面表达属于应用文。 【详解】1.审题立意 本篇书面表达属于应用文。要求考生写申请信,人称使用第一人称和第二人称,时态用一般
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现在式。 2.谋篇布局 书信格式,称呼和落款文中已经给出。首段,写信的目的,中间段写个人优势和能做的事, 最后一段总结。 3.关键词 根据写作要点及构思好的提纲我们可以初步确定文章可能使用到的词汇有:volunteer,a Chinese Painting Exhibition,local city,advantages,a good command of,beneficial for,familiarity with,appreciate ,take my application into consideration。通过词汇铺垫,我们就很容易地行文 了,文章写完之后要检查文中是否存在拼写或语法错误,并增加一些细节和过渡性的词汇, 如 First of all, Besides, to begin with,moreover,as for me,Last but not least,等,使全文衔接 自然,语义流畅。 【点睛】本文首段开门见山,表达了写信的目的;第 2 段详细介绍了个人的优势和能做的事情, an outgoing boy, who is studying in London.此处使用了同位语和非限制性定语从句。having heard that a Chinese Painting Exhibition will be held in this local city.使用了分词做状语和宾语从句及被 动语态。having lived in China for sixteen years and having learnt English since I was a child, I have a good command of English and Chinese, which is beneficial for introducing Chinese paintings.使用 了分词和非限制性定语从句。另外 First of all, Besides, Last but not least 的使用使文章富有条理 性。此外,还使用了高级句式结构,如 I would appreciate it if you could take my application into consideration 条件状语从句。
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